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Apr, 27 2022 (v1) Project deliverable Open Access

Deliverable D2.4 - Call for expression of interest for virtual pilots

Taranu, Victoria; Broer, Rutger;

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Ths Deliverable reports the text and the specifications provided in the call for expression of interest that aims to collect applications for two virtual pilots in the context of the H2020 project e-SAFE. The project aims to develop a market-ready solution for integrated seismic and energy renovation of non-historic buildings (i.e. built around 1950-1990) with reinforced concrete (RC) frame. In the context of the project, the system will be tested on a real pilot in Catania (Southern Italy) and two virtual pilots in Europe.

The choice of linking virtual pilots with a call for expression of interest is motivated by the need to match the design opportunities offered by e-SAFE with highly motivated early adopters, enhancing their capabilities and interests to act on deep renovation.
The building owners of the virtual pilots will benefit from receiving a 3D survey of the building, 3D physical and digital models, a survey of the energy consumptions and the potential energy savings and a detailed design of the energy-efficient and anti-seismic renovation solution, which will be defined through a co-design process that will actively involve owners and occupants.
The demonstration activity at the virtual pilots will end with the production of a detailed e-SAFE-based design, including the suggestion of possible viable financial schemes, according to the needs of the requesting entity. The demonstration activity does not include the actual implementation of the renovation works.
Owners or managers of multi-storey, non-historic buildings located in earthquake-prone areas in Europe are eligible. However, priority will be given to EU countries other than Italy, where the real pilot is being renovated. The public or private entities which administer social/public housing or public buildings (e.g. schools) are highly encouraged to apply, as well as private actors such as building owners and real estate brokers. The detailed eligibility conditions and application method are detailed in the call.
The current call is available in six languages: English, Turkish, Romanian, Greek, Italian and Bulgarian, these being the target countries of the call due to their relevant seismicity and different climatic conditions. The complete calls are available on the e-SAFE website. Additionally, other promotional material (flyers) was elaborated, with statistics adjusted to the target country (see Appendix 1).

Apr, 27 2022 (v1) Project deliverable Open Access

Deliverable D4.3 - e-SAFE DSS: first complete version (accompanying report)

Lazzaro Marilena; Melodia Enrico Gabriele; Roppolo Alessio;

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This report is the accompanying document of D4.3, i.e. the e-SAFE Decision Support System (DSS) first complete version that will be used during the co-design stage of the real pilot in Catania. Please refer to D4.2 to know more about the algorithms used in teh e-DSS.

The software code is stored in the ENG Gitlab repository at This is a repository hosted by ENG in order to manage and optimize the software delivery lifecycle, including all the development activities that are under ENG responsibility. The Gitlab project that was created for e-SAFE is compliant to a specific access policy aimed to prevent unauthorised users from gaining access to the software code; indeed, only ENG employees working on e-SAFE project have access to the e-SAFE project on Gitlab and this is compliant to the ENG policy.

Dec, 31 2021 (v2) Project deliverable Open Access

Deliverable D4.2 - Decision Support System (e-DSS) - Renovation space representational model

Lazzaro, Marilena; Evola, Gianpiero;

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This deliverable aims at providing the overall description model for the Decision Support System (e-DSS) that is conceived in e-SAFE as a tool to support the decision-making process in the co-design stage.
The great majority of the features and functions described in this report are already implemented in the first release of the e-DSS (Deliverable D4.3 and Milestone MS4): some of the features, and especially those concerning pilot buildings outside Italy, will be implemented in the second release of the e-DSS (due in March 2023) that will be exploited in the co-design stage of the virtual pilots.
More in detail, the Renovation Space representational model, that is conceived as the e-DSS data model, is updated to cover the computation of costs and time for both the e-SAFE envelope renovation solutions (e-CLT, e-PANEL) and technical systems (e-TANK and e-THERM). Instead, since the investigation about the features of e-EXOS is still ongoing, a small update of the data model is expected in the following months; this update will be formally reported in the accompanying document of the final version of e-DSS (D4.5), which is due at M30. Moreover, entities such as the Renovation Solution have been improved by the addition of new attributes, and a new entity Renovation Solution Intermediate Result is introduced to monitor and assess the overall calculation process.

Mar, 10 2022 (v1) Journal article Open Access

Experimental Cyclic Response of a Novel Friction Connection for Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with CLT Panels

Boggian, Francesco; Tardo, Carola; Aloisio, Angelo; Marino, Edoardo; Tomasi, Roberto;

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The seismic vulnerability of existing RC framed buildings in seismic-prone areas requires affordable and practice-oriented solutions for their retrofitting. In this paper, the authors present a retrofitting solution for RC buildings based on the combined use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels and asymmetric friction connections (AFCs). The AFC connection is activated when the force level reaches the design threshold. The energy dissipation of the AFC increases the structural dissipation capacity and reduces the displacement demand. This research presents the outcomes of an experimental campaign on selected prototypes of these AFC connectors. The authors assess their dissipative capacity from cyclic load tests in four different connector arrangements and examine the contribution of aluminum shim layers. The first results highlight the significant dissipation potential of the AFC, although they also provide evidence of the notable sensitivity on the design and constructive details. The authors present a modeling approach to simulate the experimental results.

Feb, 24 2022 (v1) Project deliverable Open Access

Deliverable D5.1 - Detailed survey of the real pilot

D'Urso, Sebastiano; Evola, Gianpiero; Margani, Giuseppe; Marino, Edoardo Michele; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Barbagallo, Francesca; Nicolosi, Grazia Maria; Tardo, Carola;

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The report describes the existing state of the real pilot building, located in Catania, which will be renovated during the demonstration activities of the e-SAFE project. The document is the result of a survey activity that has concerned different aspects, including architectural issues, geometric issues, construction and energy issues, and structural issues. The results presented in this report are preliminary to the design of the renovation solutions that will be applied to the pilot building during the demonstration activity, and allowed understanding the main criticalities that must be considered during the design and the implementation stages

Feb, 16 2022 (v1) Journal article Open Access

Optimization of the structural coupling between RC frames, CLT shear walls and asymmetric friction connections

Aloisio, Angelo; Pelliciari, Matteo; Sirotti, Stefano; Boggian, Francesco; Tomasi, Roberto;

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This paper focuses on the optimum design of the e-CLT technology. The e-CLT technology consists in adding cross laminated timber (CLT) walls to an existing reinforced concrete (RC) inflled frame via asymmetric friction connection (AFC). The authors carried out quasi-static and nonlinear dynamic analyses. The RC frame is modeled in OpenSees by fber-section-based elements with force based formulation. The contribution of the infill is simulated using a degrading data-driven Bouc–Wen model with a slip-lock element while the AFC is modelled with a modified Coulomb model. Different types of infill, aspect ratio, scaling, and member size are considered. The benefits of using e-CLT technology are discussed and the ranges of optimum performance of the AFC are estimated. A comparison of the performance of traditional infill with the e-CLT system is presented. The authors provide optimum intervals of the ratio between slip force and in-plane stiffness of the CLT panel, following energy and displacement-based criteria. The seismic displacement demand under various seismic scenario is investigated. Correlations between the RC characteristics and the optimum design ratios bestow possible criteria for the design of the AFC

Jan, 21 2022 (v1) Journal article Open Access

Design of a novel seismic retrofitting system for RC structures based on asymmetric friction connections and CLT panels

Aloisio, Angelo; Boggian, Francesco; Tomasi, Roberto;

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Friction-based dampers are a valid solution for non-invasive seismic retrofitting interventions of existing structures, particularly reinforced-concrete (RC) structures. The design of friction-based dampers is challenging: underestimating the slip force prevents the full use of the potential of the device, which attains the maximum admissible displacement earlier than expected. By contrast, overestimating the slip force may cause delayed triggering of the device when the structure has suffered extensive damage. Therefore, designing the appropriate slip force is an optimization problem. The optimal slip force guarantees the highest inter-story drift reduction.

The authors formulated the optimization problem for designing a specific class of friction-based dampers, the asymmetric friction connection (AFC), devised as part of the ongoing multidisciplinary Horizon 2020 research project e-SAFE (Energy and Seismic AFfordable rEnovation solutions). The seismic retrofitting technology involves the external application of modular prefabricated cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels on existing external walls. Friction dampers connect the CLT panels to the beams of two consecutive floors. The friction depends on the mutual sliding of two metal plates, pressed against each other by preloaded bolts. This study determines the optimal slip force, which guarantees the best seismic performance of an RC structural archetype.

The authors investigate the nonlinear dynamic response of a coupled mechanical system (RC frame-friction damper) under a set of strong-motion earthquakes, using non-differential hysteresis models calibrated on the experimental cyclic responses. The solution of the optimization leads to the proposal of a preliminary simplified design procedure, useful for practitioners.

Nov, 16 2021 (v1) Figure Open Access

Multi-level stakeholder engagement

Victoria Taranu;

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Visualisation indicating the multi-level stakeholder process pursued in e-SAFE. The visualisation indicates how different stakeholder engagement processes are linked together.

The Advisory Board gives advice about the design and implementation of the real pilot in Catania (where one building is renovated with the e-SAFE technical solution) as well as the co-design and stakeholder engagement protocol. These protocols are informed by the results from the real pilot in Catania, and tested in two virtual pilots in other seismic prone cities outside of Italy. 

The EU-stakeholder forum exchanges feedback and information with the real and virtual pilots, and gets access to the co-design and stakeholder engagement protocol. In that way, local, regional and European level stakeholders are engaging with the e-SAFE project.

Oct, 28 2021 (v1) Presentation Open Access

The e-SAFE solutions for the energy and seismic renovation of hon-historical buildings

Evola Gianpiero;

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This file is the presentation shown by Gianpiero Evola during his "Energy Talk"  at the EU Sustainable Energy Week.
The talk presented the main challenges and scopes of e-SAFE: stakeholders interested to have more information, to join our stakeholders community, and to participate to the upcoming "call for expression of interest" for virtual pilots are invited to contact us through the reported social media.

I recall that "virtual pilot" means that, inside e-SAFE, we will follow the entire renovation design process, until the preparation of a detailed design of all renovation works. The renovation of the buildings wil not be realized within e-SAFE: possible sinergies and clustering with other project are welcome.

Jun, 28 2021 (v1) Conference paper Open Access

Optimization of the slip force in a novel friction-based connection for thw e-CLT technology

Tomasi Roberto; Boggian Francesco; Aloisio Angelo;

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The European Union has sponsored the development of a new friction dissipating system, for improving seismic behaviour of existing buildings. The proposed system consists of CLT-elements connected to the external beams of existing reinforced concrete building using steel profiles. Each of the steel profiles consists of two separate plates connected by a friction connection made by preloaded bolts in elongated holes. The authors carried out the experimental testing of the friction connection by estimating the corresponding hysteresis curve. A Duhem-like mechanical model, matching with the experimental results, simulates the cyclic response of the connection. The authors investigate the seismic performance of a structural archetype, a plane RC frame with CLT shear walls equipped with this sort of friction dampers. It is assessed the optimum preload condition to achieve an optimal seismic performance according to the Italian seismic scenario by the fragility assessments. A selected suite of earthquakes
is the basis of Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) of the structural archetype, without and with the friction device. The optimum preload of the dissipating systems descends by optimizing the structural performance: maximizing the dissipated energy by preventing damage to the CLT panel and the reinforced concrete frame.